Forensic Auditing and Accounting

In the last several years, the term forensic auditing came into usage. What really does it specifically mean? The following article will discuss the importance of this process. First off, let us define accounting. Accounting is the method of identifying, measuring, recording, and communicating economic information regarding an entity or an organization. This procedure permits … Continue reading “Forensic Auditing and Accounting”

In the last several years, the term forensic auditing came into usage. What really does it specifically mean? The following article will discuss the importance of this process.

First off, let us define accounting. Accounting is the method of identifying, measuring, recording, and communicating economic information regarding an entity or an organization. This procedure permits informed judgments by users of the information. On the opposite side is forensic auditing which is a fairly new procedure under the field of auditing.

Crime was the reason why forensic auditing was born, most specifically economic crime. Economic crime has affected every country and industry and has escalated in recent times. The number of cases of fraud and corruption that are being reported has continued to grow. This is complicated by the challenges faced by the criminal justice system. Plus the general absence of the necessary skills to gather the proper audit evidence that is vital to criminal investigations.

According to information gathered from law enforcement and criminal justice agencies, the success rate for convictions are not good because prosecuting authorities lack skills and knowledge to provide effective investigation and prosecution. This is where forensic auditing comes in. Thus, forensic accounting gets its name from its association with a court of law. It is carried out to accomplish an objective that entails a judicial process.

An example of this is the computation of asset values in a divorce proceeding. Another is the assessment of damages due to the negligence of an auditor. Still another is fact-finding to see whether fraud had taken place, in what amount, and whether or not criminal proceedings are to be set off. And lastly, the collection of evidence in a criminal proceeding. Forensic accounting focuses primarily on both the evidence of financial transactions and reporting as found within an accounting system. It is the legal framework that allows such evidence to be suitable to the purpose of accounting.

Forensic accountants are chartered accountants that specialize in these types of cases and when there is a need for such evidence. Their job is to distinguish and interpret the evidences of both non-fraudulent and fraudulent transactions in the books and records of an accounting system. They also look out for the ensuing effect upon the accounts, inventories, and presentations. So, it is important that forensic accountants must first understand the regular accounting procedures and processes. In other words, forensic accounting is a specialization.

A Forensics Career in Pathology Overview

Choosing a forensics career in pathology can be an exciting and interesting career choice. Forensic pathologist’s main concern is finding out the cause of death of someone, which is done by performing an autopsy and removing specimens from the body for examination under a microscope. Specimens could include tissues and body fluids such as urine and blood. They also are concerned with the circumstances of the death, which can help them discover the manner in which the death occurred, whether it is homicide, accidental, natural or suicide. Along with determining the cause of death in these types of cases, forensic pathologists also investigate deaths that are unusual, suspicious, caused from the result of a surgical procedure and deaths of healthy people who die suddenly.

A forensics career as a forensic pathologist often requires them or their investigative team to visit the scene of where the death occurred. Gathering crucial information such as the time of death, what the individual was doing at the time of death, their medical history and other pertinent information can help determine the cause of death. They also examine the body externally and internally along with the clothes that are on the body. Photographs will be taken as well as procedures such as x-rays and specimens for analysis. Forensic pathologists work with many other branches of forensics science such as criminalists who examine physical evidence that the pathologist recovers. They also work with forensic toxicologists by sending collected specimens such as stomach contents and blood to them for analysis. Bullets and weapon recovery is often sent to firearms examiners for analysis.

When working in a forensics career as a pathologist it’s important to be able to communicate well with others. Forensic pathologists work closely with law enforcements officers, attorneys, doctors and sometimes bereaved family members. Gathering the proper and accurate information in a timely matter is necessary as this valuable information can help solve criminal investigations. To pursue a forensics career in pathology, educational requirements include four years of college, four years of medical school, apprenticeship in pathology and another one to two years of fellowship in forensic pathology, after completion of apprenticeship. Certification is awarded from The American Board of Pathology. Employment opportunities can be found in hospitals, medical examiners offices, federal agencies and the (AFIP) Armed Forces Institute of Pathology. Salaries for forensic pathologist range from $47,800 up to $160,693 nationally, depending on which industry the pathologist is working in along with their education and experience.

With a Forensics Career educational background, there are a wide variety of positions within many fields, all with many great benefits, that could suit you.

What is a Computer Forensics Expert Witness?

What is an Expert Witness in the field of Computer Forensics? The most simple answer is a person who goes to court to testify regarding the accuracy and findings from the computer forensics service. In a nutshell, that is it. However, there is a lot more to being an Expert Witness in the field of Computer Forensics and E-Discovery.

With the increased usage and dependence on the Internet – for corporate and individual communication – electronic communication is now the standard and ‘paper’ communication is the new exception.

  • 80% of all corporate data is stored electronically
  • 95% of new data is stored electronically (approximately 80% of this information stays in electronic format).

As a result, in almost every legal matter, critical and relevant evidence will be stored electronically. Proper collection and examination of this evidence is critical to avoid spoliation, to preserve the evidence, and to manage cost.

An Expert Witness is a specialized and quickly growing field of investigation within Computer Forensics and E-Discovery. And as such, these individuals are a leading defense, or offense – depending on which side of the litigation you are on, up corporate America’s sleeve against cyber crimes and prosecuting ‘hackers’. An Expert Witness service typically works closely with a Computer Forensics investigator, or perhaps has the credentials and experience of both.

Computer Forensic investigators uncover the depth of a security breach, recover data that has been corrupted or intentionally deleted, identify how a ‘hacker’ got past the security checks and if fortunate enough, identify the individual who caused the damages. The term ‘hacker’ can either be an individual on the Internet, an employee, or a spouse looking to steal or destroy data.

Expert witness service provides testimony, documentation and witness preparation to help present discovered electronic data in legal proceedings to help you prove and win your case.

Should your company, or yourself, need the service of an Expert Witness for a case dealing with Computer Forensics and E-Discovery, make sure that the computers which could be involved in the case are secured from use and contact a Computer Forensics service to discuss your situation.